Who was Lord Baltimore? Part Three.

There were four more Lords Baltimore after Cecilius Calvert: his son Charles, grandson Benedict Leonard, great-grandson Charles, and finally great-great-grandson Frederick Calvert.

The third Lord Baltimore, Charles Calvert, was Catholic and was born and died in England (1637-1714/15). However, he lived for a time in Maryland – in St. Mary’s County. As summarized in the Maryland State Archives, Charles:

“continued his father’s policy of religious toleration, and in particular reached accommodation in the 1680s with the Quakers; fashioned a close circle of political leaders, almost exclusively Catholics, who were usually bound to him by blood kinship or marriage…his struggles with William Penn over the northern boundary of Maryland and attacks against the colony’s charter finally necessitated his return to England in 1684; his deputies lacked Calvert’s ability to defuse attacks and govern smoothly; Calvert lost his colony in the royal settlement following the Glorious Revolution, during which he was charged with outlawry and treason, charges that were later dropped; he made many unsuccessful efforts to regain the colony in the subsequent twenty-five years; he broke off relations with his son Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore (1679-1715) upon the latter’s conversion to Protestantism.”

Benedict Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore, was the first to be born in Maryland (1679). He lived in St. Mary’s County as a small child, but returned to England with his father in 1684. Benedict was raised as a Catholic but became a member of the Anglican church in 1713:

“His conversion to Protestantism was an important condition leading to the restoration of the colony to Calvert family as a proprietary colony.”

Clearly, the upheaval of the Protestant Reformation had impacts far from England and outside the Christian churches.

Another Charles Calvert became the fifth Lord Baltimore. He was born in England in 1699 and his parents divorced when he was a child. Like his father Benedict, he was raised a Catholic and later became Anglican.

“Thomas Carlyle (1795—1881) described Calvert “as something of a fool, to judge by the face of him in portraits, and by some of his doings in the world,” but a modern historian credits him as being “a careful and fairly successful administrator.””

Charles held claim to quite a lot of land in the colony of Maryland during his lifetime. As described in the Maryland State Archives:

“Calvert owned all unpatented land in Maryland. He personally owned twenty-one manors in various locations in the colony, plus reserves around each manor to prevent encroachment by patentees. Manor and reserved lands totaled at least 103,000 acres. By 1751 manor lands amounted to ca. 111,500 acres.”

The sixth and final Lord Baltimore was a man named Frederick Calvert. He was raised as an Anglican, born in England, and never crossed the Atlantic to set foot in Maryland. According to the M.S.A.:

“Modern historians have noted that he “took little part in the government of his province” and characterized him as “a dissolute, but generous man.” He was the author of Tour in the East in the Years 1763 and 1764 with Remarks on the City of Constantinople and the Turk. Also Select Pieces of Oriental Wit, Poetry and Wisdom , Gaudia Poetica Latina, Anglica, et Gallica Lingua composita, and Caelestes et Inferi. In 1768 he was tried in England on a charge of raping a young woman, but he was acquitted. Against the wishes of his family, he devised the provice of Maryland to Henry Harford (ca. 1759-1834), subject to the payment of £20,000 to be divided between his sisters, Louisa and Caroline.”

Do you have any additional information about the Lords Baltimore? Email stories@lordbaltimorehotel.com and enlighten us!

Advertisements

Who was Lord Baltimore? Part Two.

Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, was the son of the first Lord Baltimore, George Calvert. In 1632, George applied to the English crown for a charter to land along the Chesapeake Bay. Maria Day writes for the Maryland State Archives:

“Cecil (or Cecilius in Latin) Calvert was still a young man of 26 years when his father, George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died in 1632. Upon his father’s death, Cecil became the Second Baron of Baltimore and inherited the colonies and lands owned by his father. King Charles I had approved a request from George Calvert to establish a colony called the Province of Maryland (“Terra Mariae”) in 1632. But the Calvert family did not receive the Charter of Maryland until after George Calvert died. Now it was up to Cecil Calvert to establish and govern the new colony. Cecil was well educated, but he had did not have his father’s years of experience at governing colonies. No one knew what kind of leader Cecil might turn out to be when the King named him Lord Proprietor of Maryland. But Cecil was a wise leader. He invited sons of Catholic and Protestant families to sail to Maryland and establish the new colony.

Cecil governed Maryland from his home in England, where he lived with his wife Anne Arundell and their children. Cecil was never able to visit his colony because of the social and political problems in England. The English Parliament had so many disagreements with King Charles I during the early seventeenth-century that they fought a civil war against him (1642-1649). The war influenced events in Maryland because the government of England was divided between those supporting the King and those supporting Parliament. Cecil wanted to make sure that the Maryland colony would be protected no matter which side won the civil war. He made friends in Parliament, but he continued to support King Charles I for as long as he could.

Since Cecil was unable to make the journey to Maryland, his brother Leonard went instead. The Maryland State Archives has a brief biography of Leonard:

“Leonard Calvert, Maryland’s first colonial governor, was born in England circa 1606. His father, Sir George Calvert, received the title, Baron of Baltimore, from King James I of England, and thus became the First Lord Baltimore in February, 1625. When George died on April 15, 1632, Leonard’s brother, Cecilius Calvert, succeeded to the title Second Lord Baltimore. Cecilius was granted the Charter of Maryland on June 20, 1632 by King Charles I of England. In 1633, Leonard sailed to Maryland with the first two ships of immigrants, and he became the colony’s first governor. He served until his death on June 11, 1647.”

Cecil’s only surviving son, Charles (described here by the Maryland State Archives) would become the third Lord Baltimore:

“Cecil sent his son, Charles Calvert, to be Maryland’s Governor in 1661. He told his son to keep the Act of Toleration as law for the good of Maryland.2  Freedom of religion was important to help the Maryland colonists to live together in peace.  Cecil died in 1675, after governing Maryland for forty-two years.”

How many counties in Maryland are named after members of the Calvert family? Can you name them all? Send your guesses to stories@lordbaltimorehotel.com and we may share them in a future post.

Who was Lord Baltimore? Part One.

The city of Baltimore was named after the second Lord Baltimore, Cecilius Calvert, son of the first Lord Baltimore, George Calvert. Writing for the Maryland State Archives, Maria Day discusses the life of George Calvert:

“George Calvert was the first person to dream of a colony in America where Catholics and Protestants could prosper together. He was born in Yorkshire, England and studied at Trinity College at Oxford. Sir Robert Cecil, King James I’s Secretary of State, hired Calvert to be his secretary. Sir Robert trusted Calvert as a good advisor. King James I then rewarded him with the title of “Knight” for good service in 1617. Calvert became Sir George Calvert, Secretary of State for King James I.

By the time that King James I died and his son Charles I ruled England, Calvert had distinguished himself as a statesman and loyal subject. He served several terms as a Member of Parliament. King James I, and later his son King Charles I, gave Calvert lands in Ireland and grants of money. Yet George had a problem: he had become a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Catholics were not permitted to hold high offices for the King of England or to be Members of Parliament. In 1625, Calvert announced to James I that he had become a Catholic, and so had to resign his job. But King James I liked Calvert so much that he decided to give him another title. Sir George Calvert then became the First Baron of Baltimore, a town on the southern coast of Ireland.”

George Calvert was given a charter for land in Newfoundland (now a part of Canada) prior to his Maryland land charter. According to the Colony of Avalon historical website,

“In 1620, George Calvert (1579/80-1632) purchased a parcel of land in Newfoundland from Sir William Vaughan. The land extended from just south of Aquaforte to Caplin Bay (now Calvert). The following year, Calvert’s colonists set off for Ferryland under the leadership of governor Captain Edward Wynne. After the colony had been established, Calvert obtained a larger land grant from King James I of England, who awarded him “the Province of Avalon“.”

Day explains that George briefly lived in the Newfoundland Avalon colony, but died before obtaining the Maryland charter. It would be up to his sons to bring the Maryland colony to fruition:

“George Calvert died in 1632, before Charles I had time to approve the charter for his new colony, named Maryland (“Terra Mariae”).  Calvert’s eldest son, Cecil, the Second Lord Baltimore helped to bring his father’s dream colony to life. Another son, Leonard, became Maryland’s First Governor.”

Do you have knowledge about colonial Maryland? Email stories@lordbaltimorehotel.com and share it with us!

What’s happening at the Lord Baltimore Hotel?

Let’s take a break from history and look at what’s going on now at the hotel! There were a couple of notable occurrences in the last week.

First, the Lord Baltimore Hotel has teamed up with another Baltimore company, Classic Catering People. From the hotel’s January 29 press release:

“The historic Lord Baltimore Hotel and The Classic Catering People have announced a unique collaboration in which Classic Catering People will serve as the exclusive caterer for the Lord Baltimore Hotel.

With this collaboration new and previously booked meetings and events at the Lord Baltimore Hotel will be arranged and coordinated by Classic Catering People. This includes large-scale events and celebrations in the Calvert Ballroom, which can accommodate up to 1,200 people for a reception, as well as events in the new 19th Floor roof-top parlors and other function rooms suited for more intimate gatherings.

“The Baltimore community will be the beneficiary of the extraordinary synergy between the Lord Baltimore Hotel and Classic Catering People,” said Gene-Michael Addis, General Manager of the Lord Baltimore Hotel. “This partnership will elevate all events held at the Lord Baltimore Hotel, including those that are already under contract, and will allow our guests to have the extraordinary advantage of a top-notch venue and a premier caterer under one roof.”

A Baltimore company with more than 40 years of experience in the arenas of social and corporate catering, Classic Catering People believes that a passion for food is at the base of every event. Along with talented Account Executives and catering staff, Classic Catering has an accomplished culinary team of inventive chefs that continually craft new menus with traditional and contemporary flavors as well as presentations.

“The Classic family is delighted to partner with the Lord Baltimore Hotel in achieving excellence in event service for its clientele,” said Harriet Dopkin, president and co-owner of The Classic Catering People. “Our company has deep roots in the Baltimore community and shares a similar vision as the Rubell family, the new owners of the hotel, in putting the city’s celebrated assets—such as the Lord Baltimore Hotel—at the forefront, and we look forward to embarking on this exciting new journey.”

Also last week, cast and crew for the HBO series “Veep” were filming at the hotel from Monday to Wednesday. For those who are unfamiliar with the show, here’s the back story from HBO:

“Former Senator Selina Meyer (Julia-Louis Dreyfuss) has accepted the call to serve as Vice-President of the United States. The job is nothing like she imagined and everything she was warned about. Veep follows Meyer and her staff as they attempt to make their mark and leave a lasting legacy, without getting tripped up in the day-to-day political games that define Washington.”

Have you been to a cool event at the Lord Baltimore Hotel recently? Write to stories@lordbaltimorehotel and tell us about it!

The Pre-War Years: 1941

The year that saw the U.S. enter World War II was bookended by two momentous speeches by President Franklin Delanor Roosevelt. The first took place on January 6, and is now known as the “Four Freedoms” speech. The full transcript (with mp3 file) is here, and the relevant excerpt is below:

“In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.

The first is freedom of speech and expression – everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way — everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants — everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear, which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor — anywhere in the world.

That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called “new order” of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.

To that new order we oppose the greater conception — the moral order. A good society is able to face schemes of world domination and foreign revolutions alike without fear.”

The Supreme Court, meanwhile, affirmed the law that set the first minimum wage and maximum hours worked, which was passed in response to the economic imbalances that led to the Great Depression. According to PBS,

“The Court unanimously upholds the Fair Labor Standards Act. The act, which is the last major piece of the New Deal legislation, establishes minimum wage and maximum hour labor standards in all industries producing goods to be shipped in interstate commerce. The decision in Darby Lumber Co. v. United States reverses several prior decisions, most notably the 1918 case Hammer v. Dagenhart.”

1941 was also the year that Duke Ellington recorded “Take the A Train,” written by Billy Strayhorn a few years before – listen here and look at original documents here.

In another momentous cultural event, one of the greatest movies ever made, the Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, premiered in 1941.

In major league baseball, Ted Williams set a record that has yet to be matched again by finishing the 1941 season with a .406 batting average. In 2011, Bill Pennington wrote for the New York Times:

“Williams, concluding his third season with the Boston Red Sox, went 6 for 8 in the two games to finish at .406, and no one has since hit .400 or better for a season. No one, in fact, has hit higher than .390, and that was 31 years ago.

As another regular season winds toward a close — with no batter above .350 — it may be time to more fully appreciate Williams’s profound, singular achievement. For 70 years, Williams’s .406 season has often been a baseball accomplishment positioned just to the edge of the brightest spotlight.

It was insufficiently acknowledged in 1941 largely because five players had hit better than 400 seven times in the previous 20 years. Only 10,268 fans attended the doubleheader in Philadelphia, and out-of-town newspapers like The New York Times published only brief wire-service accounts.”

Finally, of course, came December 7, 1941, and the Pearl Harbor attack. A letter from December 1 notifying President Roosevelt of unexplained Japanese troop movements can be viewed here, and more information about the attack can be found here.

The next day, on December 8, President Roosevelt gave another speech:

“Yesterday, December 7, 1941 — a date which will live in infamy — the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that Nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to the Secretary of State of form reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces — with the unbounded determination of our people — we will gain the inevitable triumph — so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December seventh, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.”

And with those words ended the pre-war years. America was again at war.

Do you remember the Lord Baltimore Hotel during the 1940’s or 50’s? Email stories@lordbaltimorehotel.com and share your memories with us!

The Pre-War Years: 1940

In 1940, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was extolling the virtues of passenger trains. Some more familiar cultural works appeared that year, including the novel “Native Son” by Richard Wright, and the groundbreaking comic strip “Brenda Starr”, which would run for 70 years:

“The redheaded comic heroine, whose first appearance came in a June 1940 Chicago Tribune insert, is putting the notebook away for good next month. Tribune Media Services, which owns Brenda Starr, announced Thursday that it’s ending the feature’s newspaper syndication.

The cartoon is a rarity in the world of comics, with a strong female lead role and a female-dominated creative team, originating in a time when the workplace wasn’t as friendly to women. Messick was a New York greeting-card artist who changed her name from Dalia in the 1940s so her work would be better noticed.”

However, across the oceans, Europe was moving quickly into a continental war, and Asia also continued its slide into hostilities. Notably, the Olympic Games were supposed to be held in Tokyo in 1940, and ended up being cancelled:

“Under these circumstances it became questionable whether the 1940 Tokyo Olympic Games would ever take off. But what finally sealed their fate was the expanding war in China, which had broken out in July 1937. At first, the Japanese hoped that the hostilities would end in a short time and they would be able to stage the Olympic Games as scheduled. But as the war situation intensified and required more and more lives and materiel, the prospects of the games started to look dim….

…Meanwhile, the IOC had chosen Helsinki to host the 1940 Olympic Games, but the Second World War, which broke out in September 1939, led to the cancellation of both the 1940 and 1944 Olympiads.”

In Poland, what would become the largest concentration camp in Europe, Auschwitz, opened.

In France, a random wandering resulted in an breathtaking discovery of early art:

“Near Montignac, France, a collection of prehistoric cave paintings are discovered by four teenagers who stumbled upon the ancient artwork after following their dog down a narrow entrance into a cavern. The 15,000- to 17,000-year-old paintings, consisting mostly of animal representations, are among the finest examples of art from the Upper Paleolithic period.

First studied by the French archaeologist Henri-Édouard-Prosper Breuil, the Lascaux grotto consists of a main cavern 66 feet wide and 16 feet high. The walls of the cavern are decorated with some 600 painted and drawn animals and symbols and nearly 1,500 engravings. The pictures depict in excellent detail numerous types of animals, including horses, red deer, stags, bovines, felines, and what appear to be mythical creatures.”

Speaking of mythical creatures, the famous cat and mouse cartoon duo Tom & Jerry had their debut in 1940 with the short film, “Puss Gets the Boot” (watch here).

Finally, another film which debuted in 1940 was Charlie Chaplin’s “The Great Dictator”. The great film critic Roger Ebert wrote:

“In 1938, the world’s most famous movie star began to prepare a film about the monster of the 20th century. Charlie Chaplin looked a little like Adolf Hitler, in part because Hitler had chosen the same toothbrush moustache as the Little Tramp. Exploiting that resemblance, Chaplin devised a satire in which the dictator and a Jewish barber from the ghetto would be mistaken for each other. The result, released in 1940, was “The Great Dictator,” Chaplin’s first talking picture and the highest-grossing of his career, although it would cause him great difficulties and indirectly lead to his long exile from the United States.

Chaplin’s film, aimed obviously and scornfully at Hitler himself, could only have been funny, he says in his autobiography, if he had not yet known the full extent of the Nazi evil. As it was, the film’s mockery of Hitler got it banned in Spain, Italy and neutral Ireland. But in America and elsewhere, it played with an impact that, today, may be hard to imagine. There had never been any fictional character as universally beloved as the Little Tramp, and although Chaplin was technically not playing the Tramp in “The Great Dictator,” he looked just like him, this time not in a comic fable but a political satire.”

The Pre-War Years: 1939

As the Lord Baltimore Hotel entered its second decade, momentous events were occurring both here and around the globe. Some of the most consequential things that happened that year were scientific and political, but there were significant cultural and athletic developments as well.

A uranium atom was split for the first time in early 1939, laying the groundwork for the Manhattan Project that would eventually build the world’s first nuclear weapons:

“Previous attempts at atom-splitting had resulted, so to speak, rather in knocking chips off the atoms than in dividing them into two. There has always been a hope that some such process would make available the vast stores of atomic energy which make every handful of dirt a potential source of true wealth. In the Columbia experiments it was found that the uranium atom, when split, gave out six thousand million times as much energy as was needed to split it.”

Around the same time, Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler was making wild accusations and ominous proclamations to the Reichstag (German parliament) regarding the “Jewish question” (for a detailed timeline of events leading to the Holocaust, go here):

“If the international finance-Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations into a world war yet again, then the outcome will not be the victory of Jewry, but rather the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!”

Back in the United States, three more states finally ratified the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution (also known as the Bill of Rights) – Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Georgia – 150 years after they were first written.

Also in 1939, America hosted the king and queen of England for the first time ever, as described by history.com:

“King George VI becomes the first British monarch to visit the United States when he and his wife, Elizabeth, cross the Canadian-U.S. border to Niagara Falls, New York. The royal couple subsequently visited New York City and Washington, D.C., where they called for a greater U.S. role in resolving the crisis in Europe. On June 12, they returned to Canada, where they embarked on their voyage home.”

In the sports world, Lou Gehrig ended his consecutive games streak with 2,130 games, a record that would fall to Cal Ripken Jr. 56 years later, right here in Baltimore. Gehrig was shortly thereafter diagnosed with ALS, and would also give his legendary “Luckiest Man” speech that year.

John Steinbeck’s novel, “The Grapes of Wrath,” about the Dust Bowl, was published in 1939:

“and in the eyes of the people there is the failure; and in the eyes of the hungry there is a growing wrath. In the souls of the people the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, growing heavy for the vintage.”

Finally, two legendary films that are still watched today had their debuts in 1939.

In August, “The Wizard of Oz” premiered across the U.S. Last year, Susan King wrote about the film for the L.A. Times:

“The Wizard of Oz,” starring Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, Bert Lahr, Margaret Hamilton and Frank Morgan, is one of the most beloved films in all of cinema. In fact, according to the Library of Congress, the musical fantasy is the most-watched picture in history.

But how did the film fare at the box office and with critics when it came out in 1939?

“‘The Wizard of Oz’ was a moneymaker for its time,” noted William Stillman, co-author of “The Wizardry of Oz: The Artistry and Magic of the 1939 M-G-M Classic,” by email. “But with the average national ticket prices at 25 cents (more than half of its audiences were juvenile patrons who paid a dime or 15 cents), it was not expected to recoup its $3 million in production and promotion costs.

Remember, film historian Scott Essman says, movies in those days were “very ephemeral.” There wasn’t any TV or DVD on which to extend their life, he points out, so “they came and they went, and that was it.”

And a few months later, on December 15, the Civil War/Reconstruction-era tale “Gone With The Wind” premiered in Atlanta – watch a newsreel here.