Who was Lord Baltimore? Part Three.

There were four more Lords Baltimore after Cecilius Calvert: his son Charles, grandson Benedict Leonard, great-grandson Charles, and finally great-great-grandson Frederick Calvert.

The third Lord Baltimore, Charles Calvert, was Catholic and was born and died in England (1637-1714/15). However, he lived for a time in Maryland – in St. Mary’s County. As summarized in the Maryland State Archives, Charles:

“continued his father’s policy of religious toleration, and in particular reached accommodation in the 1680s with the Quakers; fashioned a close circle of political leaders, almost exclusively Catholics, who were usually bound to him by blood kinship or marriage…his struggles with William Penn over the northern boundary of Maryland and attacks against the colony’s charter finally necessitated his return to England in 1684; his deputies lacked Calvert’s ability to defuse attacks and govern smoothly; Calvert lost his colony in the royal settlement following the Glorious Revolution, during which he was charged with outlawry and treason, charges that were later dropped; he made many unsuccessful efforts to regain the colony in the subsequent twenty-five years; he broke off relations with his son Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore (1679-1715) upon the latter’s conversion to Protestantism.”

Benedict Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore, was the first to be born in Maryland (1679). He lived in St. Mary’s County as a small child, but returned to England with his father in 1684. Benedict was raised as a Catholic but became a member of the Anglican church in 1713:

“His conversion to Protestantism was an important condition leading to the restoration of the colony to Calvert family as a proprietary colony.”

Clearly, the upheaval of the Protestant Reformation had impacts far from England and outside the Christian churches.

Another Charles Calvert became the fifth Lord Baltimore. He was born in England in 1699 and his parents divorced when he was a child. Like his father Benedict, he was raised a Catholic and later became Anglican.

“Thomas Carlyle (1795—1881) described Calvert “as something of a fool, to judge by the face of him in portraits, and by some of his doings in the world,” but a modern historian credits him as being “a careful and fairly successful administrator.””

Charles held claim to quite a lot of land in the colony of Maryland during his lifetime. As described in the Maryland State Archives:

“Calvert owned all unpatented land in Maryland. He personally owned twenty-one manors in various locations in the colony, plus reserves around each manor to prevent encroachment by patentees. Manor and reserved lands totaled at least 103,000 acres. By 1751 manor lands amounted to ca. 111,500 acres.”

The sixth and final Lord Baltimore was a man named Frederick Calvert. He was raised as an Anglican, born in England, and never crossed the Atlantic to set foot in Maryland. According to the M.S.A.:

“Modern historians have noted that he “took little part in the government of his province” and characterized him as “a dissolute, but generous man.” He was the author of Tour in the East in the Years 1763 and 1764 with Remarks on the City of Constantinople and the Turk. Also Select Pieces of Oriental Wit, Poetry and Wisdom , Gaudia Poetica Latina, Anglica, et Gallica Lingua composita, and Caelestes et Inferi. In 1768 he was tried in England on a charge of raping a young woman, but he was acquitted. Against the wishes of his family, he devised the provice of Maryland to Henry Harford (ca. 1759-1834), subject to the payment of £20,000 to be divided between his sisters, Louisa and Caroline.”

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