Who was Lord Baltimore? Part Two.

Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, was the son of the first Lord Baltimore, George Calvert. In 1632, George applied to the English crown for a charter to land along the Chesapeake Bay. Maria Day writes for the Maryland State Archives:

“Cecil (or Cecilius in Latin) Calvert was still a young man of 26 years when his father, George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died in 1632. Upon his father’s death, Cecil became the Second Baron of Baltimore and inherited the colonies and lands owned by his father. King Charles I had approved a request from George Calvert to establish a colony called the Province of Maryland (“Terra Mariae”) in 1632. But the Calvert family did not receive the Charter of Maryland until after George Calvert died. Now it was up to Cecil Calvert to establish and govern the new colony. Cecil was well educated, but he had did not have his father’s years of experience at governing colonies. No one knew what kind of leader Cecil might turn out to be when the King named him Lord Proprietor of Maryland. But Cecil was a wise leader. He invited sons of Catholic and Protestant families to sail to Maryland and establish the new colony.

Cecil governed Maryland from his home in England, where he lived with his wife Anne Arundell and their children. Cecil was never able to visit his colony because of the social and political problems in England. The English Parliament had so many disagreements with King Charles I during the early seventeenth-century that they fought a civil war against him (1642-1649). The war influenced events in Maryland because the government of England was divided between those supporting the King and those supporting Parliament. Cecil wanted to make sure that the Maryland colony would be protected no matter which side won the civil war. He made friends in Parliament, but he continued to support King Charles I for as long as he could.

Since Cecil was unable to make the journey to Maryland, his brother Leonard went instead. The Maryland State Archives has a brief biography of Leonard:

“Leonard Calvert, Maryland’s first colonial governor, was born in England circa 1606. His father, Sir George Calvert, received the title, Baron of Baltimore, from King James I of England, and thus became the First Lord Baltimore in February, 1625. When George died on April 15, 1632, Leonard’s brother, Cecilius Calvert, succeeded to the title Second Lord Baltimore. Cecilius was granted the Charter of Maryland on June 20, 1632 by King Charles I of England. In 1633, Leonard sailed to Maryland with the first two ships of immigrants, and he became the colony’s first governor. He served until his death on June 11, 1647.”

Cecil’s only surviving son, Charles (described here by the Maryland State Archives) would become the third Lord Baltimore:

“Cecil sent his son, Charles Calvert, to be Maryland’s Governor in 1661. He told his son to keep the Act of Toleration as law for the good of Maryland.2  Freedom of religion was important to help the Maryland colonists to live together in peace.  Cecil died in 1675, after governing Maryland for forty-two years.”

How many counties in Maryland are named after members of the Calvert family? Can you name them all? Send your guesses to stories@lordbaltimorehotel.com and we may share them in a future post.